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亞熱帶生態所揭示喀斯特草地生態系統菌根真菌對外源氮輸入的響應機制

文章來源:亞熱帶農業生態研究所   發布時間:2019-05-10  【字號:     】  

  近日,中國科學院亞熱帶農業生態研究所環江喀斯特生態系統觀測研究站研究員王克林團隊在西南喀斯特草地生態系統菌根真菌對外源氮輸入的響應研究中獲得新進展。

  我國是世界上喀斯特面積最大的國家,不合理的土地利用導致該區養分快速丟失,植被演替初級階段普遍處于“氮限制”狀態。外源氮(N)輸入是生態系統氮限制消減的重要途徑,而土壤叢枝菌根真菌(AMF)能有效增加植物對N和磷(P)等礦質養分的吸收和轉運。目前,喀斯特草地土壤AMF對N輸入的響應及其效應仍不清楚。

  基于此,以典型喀斯特自然草地生態系統為研究對象,通過模擬N沉降(N:100 kg N ha-1 yr-1;P:50 kg P ha-1 yr-1)和引種不同密度豆科固氮灌木(紫穗槐和深紫木藍)試驗,研究了AMF豐度、多樣性和群落結構的響應特征。研究結果發現,Glomus是喀斯特地區的優勢種屬(圖3)。不同的季節顯著影響AMF群落組成與結構,AMF多樣性在生長季(夏季)低于非生長季(冬季),但是AMF豐度呈現相反的響應方式。在生長季,N添加顯著增加AMF豐度,而P添加顯著提高AMF多樣性(圖1,2)。但是,N和P的添加沒有顯著改變AMF的群落結構(圖3)。對于固氮灌木的種植,不同豆科植物和種植密度的交互作用顯著影響AMF豐度和群落結構。在生長季,低密度種植固氮灌木顯著提高AMF豐度,而高密度種植深紫木藍顯著減少AMF豐度(圖4)。不同途徑(沉降N和生物固N)N輸入通過影響土壤可利用性養分改變AMF群落。研究結果說明:N輸入會加劇喀斯特草地土壤P營養的相對不足,草叢群落通過改善土壤AMF群落提高P的吸收。在喀斯特退化區域植被恢復過程中,豆科固氮植物引入與菌根真菌群落對提升生態系統養分有效性具有重要潛力。這些研究為脆弱生態系統的恢復和農業生態系統優化管理提供理論基礎和數據支撐。

  以上研究成果近期分別發表在Biology and Fertility of Soils Science of the Total Environment上。研究得到國家重點研發項目、國家自然科學基金、中科院青年創新促進會、中科院亞熱帶農業生態研究所青年創新團隊項目的資助。

  論文鏈接:1 2 

 

圖1 AMF豐度和多樣性對自然草地N和P添加的響應

 

圖2 自然草地N和P添加下不同季節AMF群落結構的差異

 

圖3 自然草地N和P添加對AMF群落結構的影響

 

圖4 AMF豐度、多樣性和群落結構對不同豆科灌木和種植密度的響應




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